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A monthly payment made to employees who retire from a company after reaching a certain age or after working a certain number of years for that company. (Throughout history owners have sometimes disputed this idea; workers seldom have.) This organization was an alliance of unions that represented skilled workers, such as cigar makers, carpenters, and plumbers, regardless of their employer. Eager to protect their savings, most people were reluctant to buy things, and companies laid off workers by the thousands. Tariffs on imported manufactured goods were unpopular with many people in the South, who resented paying higher prices for manufactured goods without gaining any of the economic benefits that flowed to manufacturers in the North. The life of a typical worker at the turn of the twentieth century was difficult. Historians conventionally divide the Industrial Revolution into two approximately consecutive parts. Four of them were hanged on November 11, 1887, one committed suicide in jail, and the remaining two were pardoned (freed) by the governor of Illinois, John Altgeld (1847–1902), six years later. What is Second Industrial Revolution? The combination of low pay for long hours (ten hours a day, six days a week was typical) and unsafe working conditions was characteristic of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution. Even after selling their stocks, investors did not have enough to repay the loans. Within a few years, economic activity had dropped sharply. The 2nd Industrial Revolution Charts: The Electrical Industry Positive effects Negative effects Makes transport a lot easier It is experience to own Heating Factories makes fumes Computers wound not work without it Living is so easy it makes us easy-going, overweight and sluggish Chemicals and Plastics Positive effects Negative effects Plastic is very useful in the building and construction, electronics, … Also that year, striking miners dynamited the Frisco Mill in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. Manias, Panics, and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises. The new CIO in turn became affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, but it was not a happy alliance. Pullman refused, but he agreed to look into other complaints about the behavior of foremen in his shops. The result of the breakup of Standard Oil was the formation of oil companies that were in operation ninety years later, with such names as Sohio (Standard of Ohio) and Standard Oil Co. New York (Mobil). Gorn, Elliott J. Rockefeller often used the word Standard in company names. The United States only recovered after World War II broke out in Europe in 1939, when Germany declared war on Poland and eventually drew most of Europe into the fray. A voluntary association of workers who join together to apply pressure on their employer for improved pay, shorter hours, or other advantages. Laughlin, Rosemary. New York: Wiley, 2000. After Roosevelt's death in 1945, Republicans continued to resist some New Deal programs, or to modify them. (In 2002, for example, the U.S. government imposed a 30 percent tariff on some types of imported steel to help U.S. manufacturers compete against foreign companies). Forced to drop out of school at age ten in order to earn money for his family, he is known today as the founder of the Federation of Labor and the union leader who focused attention on purely union issues, like pay, benefits, and shorter hours, without concentrating on basic political changes, as the socialists favored. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. At first, the main product was kerosene, used in lamps. (Ford paid his workers better in part so they could afford to buy the cars they were making, generating more sales—and profits—for Ford.) The rise of cities was one of the defining and most lasting features of the Industrial … If employers lacked orders for products, workers were told not to come in. Enormous clouds of dust that looked like tornadoes swept through Oklahoma, forcing families off their farms and into a desperate migration to California, where they were stopped from entering at the state border. Prior to 1890 it was perfectly legal for corporations to band together and behave in ways that promoted their own interests, such as agreeing not to lower prices on goods they all manufactured. Her modest appearance masked an unstoppable passion to achieve what she saw as social justice. During this time, many advances in technology and factories made it easier and quicker for framers and manufactures to produce more goods and products to be sold. It also was a setback for the campaign for the eight-hour workday. The Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal for companies to conspire with one another to set (fix) prices on goods sold across state lines. As these companies became more profitable, they found it easier to attract new investments. The fraternal orders did, however, offer life insurance and medical insurance to members, filling a gap created by the surging population and lack of government alternatives. On May 9, 1894, a committee of the union met with Pullman and demanded that wages be restored. Their purpose, they declared, as quoted in Twenty Years at Hull-House, was "to provide a center for higher civic and social life, to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic [charity] enterprises, and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago." Addams campaigned vigorously for laws governing child labor, mandatory schooling for children, factory safety inspections, and labor unions. Kindleberger, Charles Poor. The most popular answer (popular among the New England factory owners, anyway) was to wipe out England's advantage by taxing goods imported into the United States. The Industrial Revolution, which was the sparked by other revolutions, was the spark of equality between men and women. But the most widespread, and eventually the most effective, approach to fight the leaders of industrialization was to form a labor union. . Mother Jones was a native of Ireland and the widow of George Jones, himself a union organizer in Memphis, Tennessee, who had died alongside their children in a yellow fever epidemic in 1867. You will learn about the effects of the Industrial Revolution on living and working conditions, urbanization (the growth of cities), child labor, public health, working class family life, the role of women, the emerging middle class, and economic growth and income. He also set aside funds that were used to help cigar makers who were injured, fell ill, or lost work. Negatives of the Industrial Revolution Pollution: industrial revolution is often considered to be a major source of pollution; before the advent of the industrial revolution and the various factories there was little by way of pollution. and socialism. With the development of the automobile, another product derived from oil, gasoline, became highly profitable. (Technically, the strike was against the Pullman Company; refusing to let trains operated by other companies run as a means of putting pressure on the Pullman Company was called a secondary strike, and was declared illegal.) Unions are organizations o…, LABOR The cultural ideal of the United States as a fresh new beginning, a place where brave individuals came in order to strike out into the wilderness and create a living as a pioneer farmer, was deeply embedded in American culture in the late nineteenth century. The census of 1900 showed that almost 20 percent of children aged ten to fifteen who lived in urban areas worked full time. Railroads were largely responsible for this great burst of economic production, according to Richard White, a Stanford history professor and author of Railroaded (2001). People who invest in such enterprises see the value of their investments rise steadily. Many of these organizations are still active. In 1893 an economic downturn (the term "recession" was used a century later to describe this phenomenon) had reduced the demand for Pullman's cars. Like the growth of companies and industries during the Industrial Revolution, the growth of unions was uneven and disorganized. In response, the union members at Pullman Palace Car Company went on strike. In the period from 1870 to 1890, there was an economy and productivity boom in the industrialized countries. Roosevelt's programs would do little to end the Great Depression. After the strike, Pullman insisted that workers promise not to join any union as a condition of going back to work, and he refused to rehire local union leaders. Technology has changed the world in many ways, but perhaps no period introduced more changes than the Second Industrial Revolution. For the most part, the Republican Party, which was formed in 1854, adopted policies favorable to the emerging industrial corporations of the era. In the United States, 40 percent of the population lived in cities, up from just 6 percent in 1800. Consequently, the company laid off (let go) some workers and reduced the pay of others by 25 percent. Economic growth means that factories are producing more and more. Then innovations in production line technology, materials science and industrial toolmaking made it easier to mass produce all kinds of goods that remade the American family and physical landscape. That year was 1895, during a national economic slowdown that made progress by unions exceptionally difficult. Railroad lines expanded from 35,000 miles in 1865 to 254,000 miles in 1916. These ideas were often promoted in newspapers and magazines of the era. Minnesota Public Radio. (accessed on February 20, 2003). From the mid-1930s it focused its efforts on influencing the Democratic Party to adopt positions that favored its members (as opposed to the owners of factories, whom the Republicans favored). Charity was assigned to churches or to voluntary social workers, like Jane Addams. Jones moved from Memphis to Chicago and devoted the rest of her long life to organizing workers to achieve higher pay and shorter hours. The House of Representatives passed the measure, but the Senate did not. Sometimes, as in the case of cigar makers in New York City, tiny apartments were also the workplace, where the father and mother devoted one room to rolling tobacco leaves into cigars, used the other room for living and sleeping, and had a small kitchen off to the side. Fearing a national emergency without continuing supplies of coal, President Harry Truman (1884–1972) took over operation of the mines on May 22, 1946, and threatened to draft striking miners into the army. And factory workers—including women—then had the money to buy these products. By 1881 Gompers was active in establishing a union of unions, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada. With the hostilities came a need for weapons, and lots of them. The day after the meeting, three members of the union delegation who had met with Pullman were fired. And because many industrial jobs required few skills or language training, immigration supplied a steady stream of qualified workers willing to forgo labor union membership for a job. The labor federation defeated Gompers's bid for reelection to a one-year term as union president and instead chose John McBride, who favored a more political, socialist-oriented approach. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973. Sometimes, agriculture and industry have been in conflict, and industry did not always carry the day. There, he spent his time reading and as a result became a socialist. It is the story of an ongoing struggle between workers and business owners for a share of the wealth created as a result of industrialization. The Second Industrial Revolution ended just before World War I, historians say. But getting cheaper cloth was not a problem for people in the South. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000. Life, Fall 1990, p. 62. Into this atmosphere marched Mary Harris Jones (1830–1930), one of the most colorful characters in the history of labor unions. The year 1893 saw the first of several violent strikes in Cripple Creek, Colorado. Lichtenstein, Nelson. "Labor History: The Pullman Strike." Enormous fortunes had been made by the owners of factories, natural resources (notably oil), and business networks such as railroads. Yet after World War I, the railroad would be replaced by the automobile. "Mother Jones: The Woman." THE AFL AND THE IWW When the transplanted Englishman Samuel Slater (1768–1835) established a textile mill in Rhode Island in 1797, he did more than open a fabric-making business: he set the stage for a long argument over the proper role of government in economic affairs. Druley, Laurel. Efforts to alleviate a variety of problems often encountered by poorer people, such as unemployment, poverty, and lack of housing. Should the government take a leading role in helping people suffering from unemployment, poverty, or homelessness? (Ford paid his workers better in part so they could afford to buy the cars they were making, generating more sales—and profits—for Ford.) With his emphasis on vertical integration of parts and assembly line manufacturing, Henry Ford was its king. The Industrial Revolution, the period in which agrarian and handicraft economies shifted rapidly to industrial and machine-manufacturing-dominated ones, began in the United Kingdom in the 18th century and later spread throughout many other parts of the world. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. (Anarchism and socialism were political philosophies that advocated democratic control over economic institutions, as well as political institutions. Livesay, Harold C. Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America. “You could produce all the parts of a gun and assemble any set and make a gun,” Satia says. ." Some observers feared that workers would start a revolution, similar to the 1917 communist revolution that had taken place in Russia just twelve years earlier. However, the date of retrieval is often important. At Hull House a worker could get a hot lunch, leave a child in day care, learn English, and receive medical care and legal advice. It was an era when industrial growth created a class of wealthy entrepreneurs and a comfortable middle class supported by workers who were made up by immigrants and arrivals from America’s farms and small towns. On October 29, prices on the New York Stock exchange plunged. By raising the price for manufactured goods particularly, tariffs aided new manufacturing companies. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. Stock prices had risen sharply in the preceding six months, and many investors had borrowed money from banks to buy stocks, expecting to sell them at higher prices, repay the loans, and make a tidy profit. But any hint of an end to this growth often causes investors to try to sell their shares in companies (for fear the company might eventually go out of business). Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. On May 1, 1886, members of the union went on strike against the McCormick Harvester factory in Chicago, Illinois, in an effort to reduce the workday to eight hours. It has been followed by the Third Industrial Revolution in which digital communications technology and the internet changed how we transmit information, do business and interact with each other. MacArthur used tanks and soldiers with bayonets, justifying his controversial tactics on the grounds that he thought the United States was on the verge of a communist revolution. The CIO was expelled from the AFL in 1937, and five years later, in 1942, the United Mine Workers Union withdrew from the CIO. As an effect of industrialization, classes in the well being of people increased. One of them was air pollution. The period of U.S. history since 1952 (a year marked by the election of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower as president) might be best described as post-industrial, a period when the rapid changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution slowed. After the Civil War, the federal government sometimes took a more aggressive stand against unions as strikes became more frequent, a sign of the growing influence of unions. Government programs such as pensions (social security) and unemployment insurance were started during the presidency of Democrat President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (in office from 1933 to 1945); they have continued, and even expanded, in the decades since, during both Democratic and Republican administrations. Pay was low, hours were long, and working conditions were brutal and often wildly unsafe. The fact that so many loans had gone bad posed a problem for banks. In the newly organized United States of 1776, the role of government was seen as being minimal: protect the new nation from foreign attack and look after issues that might arise as a result of commerce that crossed state or international boundaries. A synergy between iron and steel, and railroads and coal developed at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. Mine workers—primarily coal miners—had a long history of union organization that included many incidents of violence. . The chief concerns of the British government in the 1700s were protecting the country from foreign attack and protecting private property from possible attempts by the poor to seize wealth via a revolution, or even via a democratic vote., "Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution “We discovered that for six weeks they had worked from seven in the morning until nine at night,” Addams later wrote, “and they were exhausted as well as satiated. While workers were organizing trade unions, employers often turned to the government for help in defeating them. The British Agricultural Revolution refers to the unprecedented rise … Having the union control the fund meant that workers would still receive a pension, even if the company for which they worked had gone out of business. It increased wealth. Fueled by all the fabric, the fire spread rapidly to all three floors of the factory. “The advantage is if you are out in the field and something goes wrong, someone can send you that part and fix it without having to redo the entire gun.”. Such groups were labeled criminal conspiracies and punished. Many farmers saw their crops dry up and die for lack of rain. In the consequent riot, about sixty more policemen were injured, most of them by bullets fired by other policemen. In effect, the workers who were once pitted against the wealthy had become part-owners of their own companies. The strike was soon settled, and establishment of the Health and Retirement Fund was part of the settlement. A form of government in which all the people own property, including both land and capital, in common. Almost from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the people most directly affected by industrialization had responded. Others problems created by urbanization include, increased crime rates, poverty, deforestation, and the formation of slums (considered to be one of the worst effects of urbanization). Terrill, Tom E. The Tariff, Politics, and American Foreign Policy, 1874– 1901. Socialists, who sought political and economic equality for all people, were also active in the United States, but they were not as successful in elections as their counterparts in Europe. In the campaign to defeat socialism in the United States, some opponents linked it to the "Old World" of Europe, where most socialist theorists had originated, thereby suggesting that socialism was unpatriotic. She also became a leading campaigner for the right of women to vote, which was finally achieved in 1920. In the twentieth century, the federal government turned to other taxes (or reductions in taxes) to influence the behavior of consumers and businesses alike. Tariff collections also had the advantage of raising money to pay off loans taken out to finance the Civil War, to provide pensions for Union war veterans, to pay for the war against Native Americans as the country expanded westward, and to bankroll public improvements such as highways (themselves an indirect way of supporting industry). In the 1904 case Northern Securities Co. v. United States, the government had claimed that Northern Securities Company had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by bringing under common ownership two railroad companies, the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Great Northern Railroad, that ran roughly parallel tracks east and west across the northern tier of states. To contain the power of these industrial leaders, the U.S. Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 and the Clayton Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act in 1914. What was the government to do, if anything? The Supreme Court agreed with the government's argument and ordered that Northern Securities be dissolved and that the two railroads once again be operated as separate companies. “Bison had yielded to cattle; mountains had been blasted and bored. ." In this way, Gompers's organization resembled medieval guilds (associations of skilled craftsmen that set rules and standards for their work). © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. The rapid advancement of mass production and transportation made life a lot faster. The girls said they worked long hours in a candy factory and couldn’t stand the sight or smell of it. The source of the loans was depositors' money, which was now gone. THE CIO Many workers went for weeks every year without work, or pay, because his or her employer had shut down during a slow period. Some people accused Roosevelt of promoting socialism through government control of the economy, others credited him with saving the economy from socialism by alleviating suffering without attacking private ownership of business. Here are some of negative effects that urbanization had on the world during the Industrial Revolution. Attitudes toward organized labor have been hostile or friendly, largely depending on the political party in power. (The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 gave workers the right to organize andbelong to unions; the Taft-Hartley Act put limits on how unions could go about achieving their goals.). Laurie, Bruce. John L. Lewis: A Biography. In 1942 the federal government seized coal mines to end a strike that was viewed as crippling the U.S. economy at a time when the nation was fighting World War II. Although Gompers started out believing that unions should limit their activities to strictly economic goals, he later shifted his position and encouraged the AFL to stand behind politicians who promised to support laws favorable to workers. Actively alleviating suffering resulting from economic depression (1932 to present). When a person grew old and wanted to retire, it was necessary to have personal savings to live on; companies did not pay pensions to retired employees. 2. The Roosevelt administration's most famous case was Standard Oil Co. v. United States. ." One thing was certain: the role of the government had changed drastically in response to dire emergency. It is a story that took place through negotiations, violence, and political elections. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. Dalton, Kathleen. People who once were scattered among scores of small farms in the countryside were now living in cities, working for employers who in many respects viewed their employees as living parts of a complex machine called the factory. In 1906 the government filed a suit in federal court, charging that the Standard Oil Trust, a group of thirty-four oil companies owned or controlled by the financier John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937), violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by limiting competition. Factories that produce quality products have increased in numbers rapidly. 20001-2198 First published in 1910. The company, owned by George Pullman (1831–1897), manufactured and operated luxurious railroad passenger cars. Unemployment was a thing of the past; the gears of industry were humming along. Driven partly by fear of what might happen in the future, consumers order fewer goods, manufacturers produce less and hire fewer workers. They are hired by company owners in an effort to defeat strikers. The average non-Ford laborer earned less than $800 a year for a six-day workweek. From the late 19th to early 20th centuries, cities grew, factories sprawled and people’s lives became regulated by the clock rather than the sun. Household items like soap, butter and clothing that used to be made at home started being made in factories as well. There are many words used to describe this cycle: panic, crash, depression, and recession. (For more on Slater see Chapter 5; for more on Smith see Chapter 1.). In May 1932, about 10,000 veterans gathered in Washington to demonstrate their support for the bill. The responses of the federal government to the Industrial Revolution can be divided into four broad categories: These government activities are not mutually exclusive. Asserting controls over private business through regulation (1900–1911). Even the House of Commons, despite its name, did not represent the common man but reflected the power of wealth: people in England were not allowed to vote in parliamentary elections unless they could show they had a certain amount of wealth, an amount that enabled knights and middle-class merchants to vote, but not farm workers or factory workers (see Chapter 4). The prospect of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, along with the after effects of 200 years of man's unquenching thirst for more power, control, and wealth during the first and second industrial revolutions has really accelerated the odds that are dangerously close in … Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America. "From the Folks Who Brought You the Weekend: A Short, Illustrated History of Labor in the United States." Had reached a peak, they started selling shares to take jobs than there were jobs go. At Ludlow, Colorado be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography of Phase! 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